电子科学与技术学院2017年学术报告会之二十三-Silicon Phyiscal Unclonable Functions: A Retrospective and A Look Forward
来源：电子科学与技术学院 浏览：2331 时间：2017-07-04
题目：Silicon Phyiscal Unclonable Functions: A Retrospective and A Look Forward
报告人：Prof. CHANG Chip Hong （曾集丰教授），新加坡南洋理工大学电机与电子工程学院
报告内容：Severe security threats and alerts associated with the use of smart devices have drawn increasing public attentions since the inception of Internet of Things (IoT) in late 1990s. The industry projection of 30 billion connected devices by 2020 with the booming of IoT implies a 300 million strong army waiting to launch a massive destruction if only one percent of them are malicious or fake hardware. Because IoT is a network of heterogeneous “things” that are not customarily associated with the internet, the existing forms of supply-chain tagging or unique identity used conveniently to connect devices to the internet for authentication can be easily compromised to create attacks that could introduce catastrophic economic and safety treats. As most IoT devices rely on sensor data to acquire information about users and their environment, the leakage of device identities may also leak physical locations and movements, which can be utilized for grievous intelligent and criminal attacks.
In this light, silicon Physical Unclonable Function (PUF), a burgeoning technology rooted in 2002, emerges as an inexpensive security primitive to overcome the device tagging problem by its radically different way of generating and processing secret keys in security hardware. The security of PUF rests in the intrinsic complexity and irreproducibility of a random physical disorder system instead of a hard-to-solve mathematical problem. Device signature generated by PUF cannot be physically replicated even by the original manufacturer with the same photolithography masks due to the uncontrollable nature of manufacturing process variations. As the secret information can only be generated by querying the PUF device when it is powered on, active manipulation of circuit structure will cause dysfunction of challenge-response mechanism and destroy the secret.
As unique and unclonable chip identifiers, PUFs find its niche in active hardware metering, which enables chip designers to lock and unlock the circuit functionality to gain post-fabrication control of their intellectual property and clone detection. Besides, as chip makers are blazing new path for semiconductors to replace the plain CMOS process technology in the next decade. The rich variety of post-CMOS technologies, such as Phase Change Memory and Spin Transfer Torque Magnetic Random Access Memory, offer different challenges and opportunities to derive new PUF systems with atypical security features and performances. Last but not least, sensors are integral parts of an IoT ecosystem for life-changing applications. Direct integration of PUF credentials into sensor circuitry or sensing data without compromising the original sensing operations holds strong promises in influencing the technological development of hardware security in IoT.
A rapid development of PUFs was witnessed in the late 2000s with leapfrog advancement towards their quality enhancement. This effort to overcome the mediocre practicality of ordinary PUFs has a positive impact towards their application development and commercialization. Meanwhile, the commercial viability of PUFs as a security token for device identification has incentivized their attacks. With enhanced speed and precision of measurements made more affordable, side channel analysis is becoming more reachable to recover the integrated secret of the “black box” PUF. The blossoming of machine learning has also led to myth-breaking successes over the last few years in accurately predicting the ``unpredictable responses and physically cloning the ``unclonable PUFs. Identifying the vulnerabilities and new threat landscapes of existing PUF structures has been an active ongoing research effort. Understanding the underpinning of these attacks will impel countermeasures to undermine their chance of success beyond the complexity that makes them possible in the first place.
As we usher PUF into its 15th anniversary, it is time to review the advancements of PUF over the past decade. Besides classical PUF structures and their applications, this seminar will address new breed of PUFs derived from emerging non-volatile memories and vision sensors.
Chip-Hong Chang received the B.Eng. (Hons.) degree from the National University of Singapore, in 1989, and the M. Eng. and Ph.D. degrees from Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore, in 1993 and 1998, respectively. He served as a Technical Consultant in industry prior to joining the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EEE), NTU, in 1999, where he is currently an Associate Professor. He holds joint appointments with the university as Assistant Chair of Alumni of the School of EEE from June 2008 to May 2014, Deputy Director of the Center for High Performance Embedded Systems from 2000 to 2011, and Program Director of the Center for Integrated Circuits and Systems from 2003 to 2009. He has coedited four books, published ten book chapters, 88 international journal papers (two-thirds are IEEE) and 159 refereed international conference papers. He has been well recognized for his research contributions in hardware security and trustable computing, residue number systems, low-power arithmetic circuits, digital filter design and digital image processing.
Dr. Chang has served as Associate Editor for the IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems-I from 2010–2012, IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems since January 2011, IEEE Access since March 2013, IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems since January 2016, IEEE Transactions on Information Forensic and Security since January 2016, Springer Journal of Hardware and System Security since June 2016, Microelectronics Journal since May 2014, Integration, the VLSI Journal from 2013–2015, Editorial Advisory Board Member of the Open Electrical and Electronic Engineering Journal from 2007–2013, and the Editorial Board Member of the Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering from 2008–2014. He also guest edited several journal special issues and served in the organizing and technical program committee of more than 50 international conferences (mostly IEEE). He is a Senior Member of the IEEE and a Fellow of the IET (UK).